1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed by Eric H. Cline

By Eric H. Cline

In 1177 B.C., marauding teams recognized simply because the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's military and army controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did many of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few many years. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economic system and cultures of the past due moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, by surprise ceased to exist, in addition to writing platforms, know-how, and huge structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have prompted such common breakdown. How did it happen?

In this significant new account of the motives of this "First darkish Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of the way the tip used to be caused by means of a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and rebellion to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign exchange routes. Bringing to lifestyles the colourful multicultural international of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the past due Bronze Age and indicates that it used to be their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a depressing age that lasted centuries.

A compelling mixture of narrative and the most recent scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new mild at the advanced ties that gave upward thrust to, and eventually destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the overdue Bronze Age--and that set the level for the emergence of classical Greece.

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Dividing their things, their hearts joyful. 6 And, with that, the Egyptians expelled the Hyksos from the land. They fled back to Retenu (one of the ancient Egyptian names for modern-­day Israel and Syria, the same general area also known to the Egyptians as Pa-­ka-­na-­na, or Canaan). The Egyptians, meanwhile, established the Eighteenth Dynasty, begun by Kamose’s brother Ahmose, which initiated what we now call the New Kingdom period in Egypt. Avaris and the rest of Egypt were rebuilt during this period, and ­Avaris itself was renamed.

Hittite Assyrian Babylonian Mitanni Ugarit Other 18th Hammurabi Zimri-­Lim (Mari) 17th Hattusili I Mursili I 16th Seknenre Khyan (Hyksos) Kahmose Apophis (Hyksos) Ahmose I Thutmose I Thutmose II 15th Hatshepsut Tudhaliya I/II Saushtatar Kukkuli (Assuwa) Thutmose III 14th Amenhotep III Suppiluliuma I Adad-­nirari I Kurigalzu I Shuttarna II Ammistamru I Tarkhundaradu (Arzawa) Akhenaten Mursili II Assur-­uballit Kadashman-­Enlil I Tushratta Niqmaddu II Tutankhamen Burna-­Buriash II Shattiwaza Niqmepa Ay Kurigalzu II 13th Ramses II Mursili II (cont’d) Tukulti-­Ninurta I Kashtiliashu Niqmepa (cont’d) Shaushgamuwa (Amurru) Merneptah Muwattalli II Ammistamru II Hattusili III Niqmaddu III Tudhaliya IV Ammurapi Suppiluliuma II 12th Ramses III Suppiluliuma II Ammurapi Shutruk-­Nahhunte (Elam) (cont’d) (cont’d) Century Egyptian Table 1.

53 Moreover, as archaeologists began to excavate Hittite sites and eventually to translate the numerous clay tablets found at these sites, it became clear that they had not called themselves Hittites. Their name for themselves was actually something close to “Neshites” or “Neshians,” after the city of Nesha (now known and excavated as Kultepe Kanesh in the Cappadocian region of Turkey). This city flourished for some two hundred years as the seat of a local Indo-­European dynasty, before a king named Hattusili I (meaning “the man of Hattusa”) sometime around 1650 BC established his capital city farther to the east, at a new site with that name, Hattusa.

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