By Mark Tatham
What roles do the speaker and the listener play in verbal exchange tactics? delivering an total method view, this cutting edge textbook explains how these operating within the zone take into consideration speech. Emphasising contextual and environmental views, Tatham and Morton lead you thru classical and glossy phonetics along dialogue of cognitive and organic elements of speech. In explaining speech production-for-perception and the connection among phonology and phonetics, this publication indicates the potential functions (such as language educating, scientific perform, and speech expertise) and the way those are appropriate to different disciplines, together with sociolinguistics, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and speech acoustics.
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Extra resources for A Guide to Speech Production and Perception
And D. G. Drumright (2009), Anatomy and Physiology for Speech, Language and Hearing, 4th edn, Florence, KY: Delmar Cengage Learning. Ladefoged, P. (2006), A Course in Phonetics, 5th edn, Boston, MA: Thompson, Wadsworth. Lehiste, I. (1967), Readings in Acoustics Phonetics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Raphael, L. , G. L. Borden and K. S. Harris (2007), Speech Science Primer, Physiology, Acoustics, and Perception, 5th edn, Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. indd 20 02/03/2011 10:40 CHAPTER2ÐSTUDYINGSPEAKING INTRODUCTION Although we see that physically speech is mostly a continuous event in time, discontinuities and physical changes can regularly be seen on waveforms.
In practice the vocal cord vibration is often incomplete or sometimes missing altogether – though because of its phonological function the segment is still referred to as voiced to contrast it with corresponding voiceless segments. Try not to confuse voicing (strictly these days a phonological feature) and vocal cord vibration (a phonetic feature); voicing and vocal cord vibration may or may not correlate fully. indd 31 02/03/2011 10:40 STUDYINGSPEAKING REMINDER: LIP ROUNDING Although part of the specification of sounds like [u], lip rounding is non-distinctive in English.
When we come to discuss perception in detail (Chapter 7) we shall find an even more important reason for focusing on this abstract representation. Speakers and listeners are unaware of most physical details and variations. The representations in the minds of language users (as opposed to phoneticians who are trained to spot details) are much like the tables above in terms of their simplicity and abstraction. We refer to the speakers’ and listeners’ feelings about speech as cognitive representations, and these commonly involve abstract utterance plans and proposed targets for a speech sound (TUTORIAL – TARGET THEORY).