By Yoshio Sugimoto
This revised variation has been up-to-date to hide advancements within the 5 years because the first version used to be released. Yoshio Sugimoto demanding situations the conventional thought that Japan is an homogeneous society with few cultural and social disparities.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Japanese Society (2nd Edition)
This may be an important contribution of this genre because, with some refinement and elaboration of conceptual boundaries and substance, Japan-based notions can be developed as viable tools for sociological analysis. White74 and others maintain, for example, that indigenous definitions of women’s lives differ between Japan and the West. They also argue that feminism has different meanings depending on the cultural context, thereby making it impossible for a universally valid model of women’s lives to be developed.
The exact opposite of legal-rational bureaucracy would be pure nepotism or patrimonialism. For example, Nester 1990; Chan 1990. Durand and Durand-Sebag 1996. See, for example, Shibata 1983; Nitoda 1987. MM June 29 1993, p. 26. To eliminate these practices, a handful of municipalities and prefectures have adopted the “open” tender system where any company is qualified to put in a bid. This scheme enables any number of companies to submit a tender and makes it difficult for a small number of companies to seal dango¯ deals.
Many who wrote along these lines suggested the possibility of injecting some Japanese elements into the Western system to revitalize it. In the main, this argument emphasized transferable, transplantable, and therefore transcultural attributes of Japanese society. The fifth phase, which started in the mid 1980s and has continued in the 1990s, witnessed the rise of the revisionists, who saw the Japanese social system in a much more critical light than previously. Johnson, the author of MITI and the Japanese Miracle,50 argues that Japanese capitalism is a different kind of capitalism, based on the developmental state in which the national bureaucracy plays a pivotal role in shaping national policy for Japan’s national interests only.