Antibiotic Resistance: Origins, Evolution, choice and unfold Chairman: Stuart B. Levy 1997 over the past 50 years, the fast raise within the use of antibiotics, not just in humans, but in addition in animal husbandry and agriculture, has introduced a variety unheard of within the background of evolution. therefore, society is dealing with one among its gravest public future health problems-the emergence of infectious micro organism with resistance to many, and sometimes all, to be had antibiotics. This e-book brings jointly a multidisciplinary crew of specialists to debate this challenge. It starts off by means of reading the origins of resistance and is going directly to examine how using antibiotics in human drugs and farming/agriculture has chosen for resistant micro organism. Separate chapters describe the evolution of resistance determinants and the way those are unfold either inside and among bacterial species. eventually, the booklet includes discussions on suggestions for countering the specter of antibiotic resistance. a massive re-thinking of our method of the therapy of infectious ailments is proposed-that antibiotic resistance might be visible as an issue created via the disruption of ordinary microbial ecology. to revive efficacy to past antibiotics, and to keep up the good fortune of recent antibiotics which are brought, we have to use those medicinal drugs in a manner that guarantees an ecological stability that favours the predominance of weak micro organism.
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Antibiotic Resistance: Origins, Evolution, choice and unfold Chairman: Stuart B. Levy 1997 over the past 50 years, the swift bring up within the use of antibiotics, not just in humans, but in addition in animal husbandry and agriculture, has brought a range unheard of within the historical past of evolution. therefore, society is dealing with one in every of its gravest public well-being problems-the emergence of infectious micro organism with resistance to many, and in certain cases all, on hand antibiotics.
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Extra resources for Ciba Foundation Symposium 207 - Antibiotic Resistance: Origins, Evolution, Selection and Spread
It is evident that there are a large number of contributing factors, some of which are within the power of humankind to control. Whenever an antibiotic is used, bacteria will inevitably develop resistance, either by mutation, gene acquisition, or a combination of the two. It is essential for us to obtain as much information as possible on antibiotic resistance mechanisms and their dissemination and to anticipate the genetic and biochemical forms in which resistance will develop, thereby permitting the design of rational strategies to retard (at least) the inevitable and to prolong the effective lifetime of valuable antimicrobial agents.
Wiley, Chichester (Ciba Found Symp 207) p 192-205 26 DAVIES Hotchkiss RD, Evans AH 1957 Genetic and metabolic mechanisms underlying multiple levels of sulphonamide resistance in pneumococci. In: Drug resistance in micro-organisms: mechanisms of development. J & A Churchill, London (Ciba Found Symp 43) p 183196 Hughes VM, Datta N 1983 Conjugative plasmids in bacteria of the ‘pre-antibiotic’ era. Nature 302:725726 Huovinen P, Sundstrom L, Swedberg G, Skold 0 1995 Trimethoprim and sulfonamide resistance.
Hull: We have been looking at chloramphenicol acetyltransferases (CATs). There are two families of these enzymes that are only related at the superfamily level. D. Recchia & R. M. Hall, unpublished observation). We cloned the Pseudomonas open reading frame and found that it confers chloramphenicol resistance but only at a very low level (P. White, W. W. Stokes & R. M. Hall, unpublished observation). The members of this family were probably not originally CATs because they d o not acetylate chloramphenicol efficiently, but that doesn’t matter in terms of a resistance gene: what matters is whether they can do it well enough to reduce the clinical dose to a level where the bacterium can survive.