By Hans-Jürgen Bolle, Matthias Eckardt, Dirk Koslowsky, Fabio Maselli, Joaquin Melia Miralles, Massimo Menenti, Folke-Sören Olesen, Ljiljana Petkov, S. Ichtiaque Rasool, Adriaan Griend
1. 1 area View and flooring Observations 1 1. 2 Mediterranean Climatic surroundings 2 1. three procedures at Surfaces 10 1. three. 1 Deforestation and Land-use adjustments 10 1. three. 2 Water similar difficulties sixteen 1. three. three fireplace, Grazing, and Land Degradation 19 1. three. four Drought, Floods, Frost, and Desertification 21 1. three. five Coupling among floor and surroundings: The position of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer 25 1. four position and functions of Measurements made up of area 30 1. four. 1 study Programmes 30 1. four. 2 anticipated info 32 1. four. three examine technique 33 1. four. four statement of alterations in Heterogeneous Landscapes: Spatial and Temporal Scales 35 1. four. five Land-surface swap signs Observable from area 36 Spectral features of plants and Soils (36); Responses of distant Sensing indications to adjustments of Land-surface houses (40) 1. five approximately this publication forty eight bankruptcy 2 Processing and Archiving of satellite tv for pc and Ancillary facts fifty one 2. 1 advent fifty one 2. 2 The distant Sensing information Base fifty five 2. 2. 1 satellite tv for pc tools fifty five The NOAA looking at method (55); Meteosat (57); Nimbus-7 (59); Landsat (59); SPOT (61); DMSP (62); ERS-1 and ERS-2 (62); TRMM (63); Terra (64); Envisat (65); Aqua (66) 2. 2. 2 airplane tools sixty six using airplane for Land-surface procedure reviews (66); AVIRIS (67); TMS (68); AIRSAR (68); DIAL (69) 2. three Reception, Acquisition and Availability of satellite tv for pc facts 70 2. 3.
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1. 1 house View and floor Observations 1 1. 2 Mediterranean Climatic setting 2 1. three techniques at Surfaces 10 1. three. 1 Deforestation and Land-use alterations 10 1. three. 2 Water similar difficulties sixteen 1. three. three hearth, Grazing, and Land Degradation 19 1. three. four Drought, Floods, Frost, and Desertification 21 1. three.
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Additional info for Mediterranean Landsurface Processes Assessed From Space
To study quantitatively processes at the land surfaces and the causes of changes it is necessary in most cases to combine the information inferred from different spectral channels and even from different sensor systems. In addition a priori information about the surfaces may have to be used such as digital topographical maps. After the application of complex evaluation schemes, called algorithms, one arrives at quantitative information such as of the fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere.
Up to 230 mm rain per day 22 Introduction fell in north-eastern Italy which has a statistical return period of more than 50 years. Extreme weather conditions continued in October. g. 6 °C in Catania). In the south-east of Spain the monthly precipitation totals reached 400 % of normal and torrential rainfalls occurred in the mountain watersheds of the Venetian plains and along the northern Apennines (23 and 26 October). In November temperatures in Israel were 5 °C above normal for eight consecutive days.
1994, 1998) and Pfister (1999) could attribute such flood events inter alia to processes which occurred several days earlier over the North Atlantic Ocean. They found that the atmospheric flow over the North Atlantic and Mediterranean area intensifies as the south to north temperature gradient increases in autumn which would transport considerable additional amounts of moisture into these regions. Pinto et al. (2001) investigated 30 cases of intense rainfall and showed that tropical systems and tropical-extratropical interactions indeed can play an important role in these processes.